In his essay “Creative Writer and Day-Dreaming,” Sigmund Freud compares a creative writer (or a poet in German version) to a child. According to Freud, “The creative writer does the same as the child at play. He creates a world of fantasy which he takes very seriously … while separating it sharply from reality.” Freud is known for explaining behavior of adults by the events, which happened in their childhood, not surprisingly, he goes on to say that kid’s imaginary games are the source of writer’s imagination. This quote made me wondering what it really takes to become a creative writer and, since almost every child uses her imagination to play, why not every adult can be a creative writer.
1 Introduction and Thesis Statement
If there is one issue that unties all policy makers everywhere on the globe, from Jerusalem to Teheran, it would probably be their universal underestimation of music education. As discussed below, by putting music and other arts at the bottom of the educational hierarchy (Robinson, 2006) the American policymaker is about to risk one of the cornerstones of his future in order to save a nickel today. But why is it so?
This paper neither discusses the cultural value of music, nor advocates the importance of preparing the next generation of American Idols. It does not take a stand in such matters. Instead, it presents evidences and ideas from three fields of interest, namely the principal responsibility for the students’ cognitive well-being, developing work moral and promoting innovation, and shows how closely related are these issues to music education in schools. Moreover, looking at the evidence, it is unclear how other components of the education system can compensate for the loss of one its major backbones.
The notion “motive” is often used to define a psychological phenomena such as desire, aspiration, intention, fear, etc., which are reflected in human as a willingness to work towards a certain goal. Human activity is directed by a variety of reasons, which combination and internal process of interaction is called motivation (Sansone & Harackiewicz, 2000, p. 118). Motivation is closely connected with a wide range of human needs and can be seen when there is a need or lack of something.
Motivation is an impulse to action through a combination of different motifs, creation of a specific individual condition, which determines the intensity and direction of human activity in a particular situation. In principle, there are two different forms of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic.
Children are the most fascinating and exciting human beings. They are always sincere, they always say what they mean and it is simply always relaxing and calming to be around them. When sitting on the bench in a city park looking at children play one may see that all children like all grown-ups behave differently. Even at the age of three or four some children are already leaders, while others have somebody’s will imposed on them. Such state of things depends partly on the personality of a child, though mainly on the stage of development he/she is in. Thus, in order to understand children and their behavior it is necessary to hold theoretical knowledge on this matter. The following paper is going to talk about the levels and stages of child’s development based on the theories of the Swiss scientist and philosopher Jean Piaget. At the end of the paper the reader will be presented with brief information on the significance of Jean Piaget’s work as well as criticism.
Mainstream psychology is investigates personality primarily through individual differences in psychological functioning. Comparatively recently cognitive and social models started to be used in order to describe human’s psychological functioning.
Cognitive psychology is relatively a young science: while some of the experimental sciences have existed for hundreds of years, modern cognitive psychology is slightly above 30. While still there is no comprehensive theory of cognitive psychology yet, its theorists have explored wide variety of phenomena of psychological functioning, such as categorization, control, memory, knowledge, language, and thought, and developed approach modeling cognitive mechanisms. Accumulating empirical knowledge oт cognition and developing more and more sophisticated theoretical tools ambitious theories of cognition become more increasingly successful.